CO2

Over the last eight years Polytec has built up considerable expertise in the field of pipe transmission of CO2. Future CO2 capture and storage sites are expected to be at considerable geographic distances. Pipeline transport is usually the safest and most cost effective option to get the CO2 from the capture plant to the storage site. The project portfolio over the years has included different aspects of the thermodynamics, flow modeling, flow assurance and safety aspects of pipeline transmission of CO2. Work has been carried out for a range of customers, including Gassco, Total, Shell, DnV, Gassnova and the Norwegian Research Council. Worth mentioning here are the flow assurance studies conducted within the DnV CO2 Pipetrans project. Phase one of CO2 Pipetrans lead to DnV writing the first recommended practice for pipeline transmission of CO2.

Polytec Projects

Currently, Polytec is involved in two research projects within the field of CO2 pipeline transmission. Both are within the CLIMIT program, administrated by the Norwegian Research Council. The objective of the CLIMIT program is to accelerate the commercialisation of CCS by financial stimulation of research, development and demonstration.

SECURE

The first project is a research project managed by the University of Bergen, called SECURE. Research partners in this project are Uniresearch, Heriot Watt University, Bergen University College, HSH and Plymouth Marine Laboratory. The project has as objective to develop integrated models for risk and environmental impact assessment of pipeline leakages. Polytec is involved in developing the pipeline leakage models and the model for the initial jet of escaping CO2 from a leak into the seawater. For this work a selection of CFD modeling tools are used and adapted to include the appropriate thermodynamics of multiphase CO2 flow. Assigned to the project are a senior researcher and one PhD candidate. The project has a four year time frame and started in 2011.

CO2H20+

The other project, called CO2H20+, is a BIP (user initiated industrial research project), has GASSCO (project owner) and TOTAL as industrial partners and is managed by POLYTEC. In this project, we try to increase the understanding of hydrate formation, water deposition and water drop-out in CO2-streams. Also here the focus is how these thermodynamic systems work inside a pipeline when assuming non-equilibrium conditions. Research Partners in the project are University of Bergen, IFE, Polytec and Hydrafact. At Polytec, one researcher and a Post Doc candidate are working on the theoretical understanding of the non equilibrium thermodynamics of combined systems of pipe wall chemistry, CO2, water, hydrates and selected impurities. This work is done with Bergen University within the group of Prof. Kvamme and Prof. Kutzenova. In the project, the theoretical understanding is supported by experimental research. The objective is to give the potential supplier and transporter of CO2 better understanding of what the specifications should be and what risk that have to be managed.

Rendering of a molecular dynamics simulation involving molecules of CO2 and water. In this image, the water molecules have started to cluster together, indicating formation of a free water phase which is undesirable in a pipeline.

Rendering of a molecular dynamics simulation involving molecules of CO2 and water. In this image, the water molecules have started to cluster together, indicating formation of a free water phase which is undesirable in a pipeline.